Tuesday, November 27, 2012


Here you will find the files about my exam about listening, writing and speaking plans.

How to Teach Writing Skill


1. Provide a notebook for each student. Ask the students to write in their journals every day. Write the day of the week and the date on a board. Read the day and date, then ask the students to copy the date in their journals and to write about anything they choose. Some students will write sentences, some may write paragraphs and some may write only words. Tell students to raise their hands if they want to know how to spell a word. Write the word on the board. Suggest topics that the students might like to write about: their friends, their family, how they feel, their favorite food or their favorite book. Give students the opportunity to read their entries to their classmates. The teacher does not correct the writing at this point, but she may want to write a brief comment in a few of the journals each day.

2. Have the students brainstorm a topic such as "family." Draw a word web on the chalkboard. Write the word "family" in the middle circle. Then ask for words that tell about families in the circles that you draw around the main circle. Ask the students to make sentences from the words you have written on the board. Start the sentences by writing "Four people live in my house." Write all the sentences on the board, reading them as you write.

3. Ask the students to make up a story together. The story can be something that really happened, such as a game they played outside or a trip that someone took, or it could be a made-up story, such as "One day Juan saw a flying car." Write the sentences on the board as the students say them. Do not correct grammar at this point. Read the story aloud, then ask the students to read it in unison. Have them read it several times. Ask if anyone would like to read the story by himself. Explain why you put punctuation and capital letters in the sentences.

4. Use fill-in-the-blank activities. Adjust the difficulty level according to the ability of your students. Give the students a worksheet, and ask them to write the words in the correct places. Write a story on the board the first time. Complete it with the students.For example:keep asked feed little kittenIngrid found a - - - - - - kitten.She wanted to - - - - the - - - - - -.Ingrid - - - - - her mother if she could keep the kitten.Her mother told her she would have to - - - - it and give it water.

5. Have students make a mural that tells or retells a story--for example, summarizing the events in a story they have read or how their family makes preparations for a holiday. Provide butcher paper, markers, tape and crayons. Ask them to draw a picture showing what happens first, second and the next steps. Then ask them to write sentences below the pictures that describe the action. Help the students tape the mural to a wall. Organize an exhibit of the mural. Appoint a student to stand in front of each picture to read the sentence under that picture and explain what is happening in the picture. The other students form a line and walk past the mural listening to the information about each picture. Let the students take turns describing the pictures.

6. Give the students opportunities to do functional tasks such as making lists of things they need to bring for a party, writing friendly letters, reading and copying poems that you write on the chalkboard and writing notes to their families about school events.

Here you can find moer information about it:

How to Teach Speaking Skill

Teaching Speaking

Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language. These learners define fluency as the ability to converse with others, much more than the ability to read, write, or comprehend oral language. They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire, and they assess their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken communication.
Language learners need to recognize that speaking involves three areas of knowledge:
  • Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): Using the right words in the right order with the correct pronunciation
  • Functions (transaction and interaction): Knowing when clarity of message is essential (transaction/information exchange) and when precise understanding is not required (interaction/relationship building)
  • Social and cultural rules and norms (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants): Understanding how to take into account who is speaking to whom, in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason.
In the communicative model of language teaching, instructors help their students develop this body of knowledge by providing authentic practice that prepares students for real-life communication situations. They help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to specific contexts, and to do so using acceptable (that is, comprehensible) pronunciation.

You can find more of this skill here:

Speaking: http://www.slideshare.net/AlexanderDecker/how-to-teach-speaking-skill#btnNext


How to teach Listening Comprehension

Strategies for Developing Listening Skills

Language learning depends on listening. Listening provides the aural input that serves as the basis for language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken communication.
Effective language instructors show students how they can adjust their listening behavior to deal with a variety of situations, types of input, and listening purposes. They help students develop a set of listening strategies and match appropriate strategies to each listening situation.

Listening Strategies

Listening strategies are techniques or activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the listener processes the input.
Top-down strategies are listener based; the listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next. Top-down strategies include
  • listening for the main idea
  • predicting
  • drawing inferences
  • summarizing
Bottom-up strategies are text based; the listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning. Bottom-up strategies include
  • listening for specific details
  • recognizing cognates
  • recognizing word-order patterns
Strategic listeners also use metacognitive strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their listening.
  • They plan by deciding which listening strategies will serve best in a particular situation.
  • They monitor their comprehension and the effectiveness of the selected strategies.
  • They evaluate by determining whether they have achieved their listening comprehension goals and whether the combination of listening strategies selected was an effective one.

Listening for Meaning

To extract meaning from a listening text, students need to follow four basic steps:
  • Figure out the purpose for listening. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate listening strategies.
  • Attend to the parts of the listening input that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the amount of information they have to hold in short-term memory in order to recognize it.
  • Select top-down and bottom-up strategies that are appropriate to the listening task and use them flexibly and interactively. Students' comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they use top-down and bottom-up strategies simultaneously to construct meaning.
  • Check comprehension while listening and when the listening task is over. Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and comprehension failures, directing them to use alternate strategies.
You can find more information on this page.

Presentation about Listening:


Monday, November 5, 2012